from Mine to Mistress - by Chaim Even-Zohar
Corporate Strategies and Government Policies in the International Diamond Industry
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PREFACE

1. ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL TRENDS

Facing a Myriad of Corporate and Consumer Issues
The Diamond Industry in a Global Context
Strained Government-Producer Relations
From Supply-Controlled to Demand-Driven
Prioritisation of Resource-Management Objectives
Economic Organisation of the Diamond Industry
Who Defines the Consumer’s Best Interests?
Transfer of Custodian Functions
The Essence of Supplier of Choice
DTC Sightholder Criteria
Interim Evaluation of SoC
Status Quo versus Change
Inventory Ceases to Function as Equity

PART ONE: PUBLIC & PRIVATE INTERESTS

2. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Amsterdam and London as Trading Centres
Transportation Control
Brazilian Discoveries
South African Ascendancy
Value Added (1915-40)
Subsidising Cutters
The Eve of World War II
World War II
De Beers’ Wartime Control
The War’s Aftermath

3. DIAMOND VALUE CHAIN

Analysing the Diamond Pipeline
Little Growth in Diamond-Jewellery Market
Polished Diamond Market
Link between Product and Price
Implications of New Business Models
Impact of Market Distortions
Value Added at Producer Levels
Diamond Trade’s Ripple Effect
Entry Barriers – Producer Levels
Box: Segmentation – The Unconventional Business
Measuring Pipeline Volume and Velocity
Box: Latest Discovery – New Diamond Data Mine

4. MARKETING ARRANGEMENTS

Revenue Optimisation
No Rough Price Benchmarks
Brokerage Function of the DTC
Transaction Costs
Pricing
Benchmarks
Cartel Beneficiaries
De Beers as Price Setter
Function of the GDV
Book versus Spot Prices
Single-Channel Marketing
DTC’s Producer Agreements
Buffer Stocks
Dissatisfaction
Price Control
Stabilisation Policies
Alternative Pricing Schemes
Futures Market
Widening Price Brands
Other Rough Marketing Options
Selling Through Tenders
Exclusive Buyer
Contemporary Preferences
Single to Multiple Channel Evolution
Belgium’s Role
Role of Bourses

5. DE BEERS AS SUPPLIER OF CHOICE

Compromise Between Legal and Market Imperatives
Sightholder Selections and Rough Allocations Prior to SoC
Supply Uncertainties in the 2001-2003 Period
Stewardship Rule of European Commission
Approved SoC Framework
Sightholder Profile
Sightholder Criteria
Policy Statement
Best Practice Principles
Ombudsman and Dispute-Resolution Procedures
Judicial Review of Ombudsman Decisions
The Omnipowerful Ombudsman
EC’s Outsourcing of its Monitoring and Investigation Responsibilities
Changes Imposed by the EC
Discussion and Assessment of SoC
Competing on Value Rather than Price
Uses of the Scorecard

6.ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING STRATEGIES

Compliance Deliberation
Laundering and Financing Terrorism
Nicky Oppenheimer Calls for Joint Efforts
Tackling a Trade-Based Commodity
Banks: From Safe Havens to Quasi-Intelligence Agents
BOX: Rules Discriminate Against Foreign Diamond Suppliers
FinCen’s Agenda: Ambitious but not Realistic
EC Policy Shift
Commitment to Transparency

7. CONFLICT AND ILLICIT DIAMONDS:TURNING STONES INTO THE WORLD’S MOST REGULATED COMMODITY

NGOs Link Up with US Congress
South African Government took Initiative
Essence of the Kimberley Agreement
Curbing Production and Trade in Conflict Diamonds
Industry’s Role within Kimberley Process
Historical Observations
Conflict versus Illicit
Misnomer for Traditional Trading
Conflicts Seldom End – but KPCS Reduces their Incidence
Greed versus Grievance
Conflict Prevention

PART TWO: PRODUCERS

8. ROUGH DIAMOND PRODUCTION:AN OVERVIEW

Pricing and Volumes of Rough Diamonds
BOX: How Many Large Stones
Looking at the Future
BOX: Role of Synthetics

9.ANGOLA:A NEW DAWN

Deficient Production Records
UNITA Sanctions led to Kimberley Process
Growing Contribution to Economy
Independent Endiama
Endiama: Conflicts of Interests?
Struggle for Control
Civil Strife Resumes
Expanding Role of Endiama
Experimenting with Marketing Systems
Towards a Competitive Buying System
Government Stewardship
Mining Fiscal and Legal Environment
Security Regulations
Taxation Regime
Future Prospects

10.AUSTRALIA:ALMOST THREE DECADES WITHOUT A ‘BIG’ DISCOVERY

Political Environment
Argyle Production
Government Moves the Sorting and Valuing to Antwerp
Ellendale Mine
Merlin Mine
Royalty Regimes and their Impact
Added-Value Opportunities
Determining ‘Real’ Value
Marketing Strategies
Defection and Life Thereafter
De Beers: Renewed Fight for Control
‘Argyle’ Brand
Government Intervention
Aboriginal Issues
Globalisation of Diamond Politics

11. BOTSWANA: FINALLY IN FULL PURSUIT OF SELF-INTEREST

Ramifications of Change of Business Models
Competition Also Within De Beers Group
Shared Marketing Costs
Rough Supply to Local Factories
Economy Needs Diversification
A Nation Dependent on Diamonds
Towards Significant Beneficiation; Folly Becomes Reality
Governance in Botswana
BOX: Every Diamond Recorded and Reported
Diamond Story
De Beers-Botswana Relationship
Resource Management: Needs Improvement
The ‘Suit of Agreements’ Signed
Threats and Co-Operation on Gem-Quality Synthetics
New Marketing Arrangements
Establishment of DTC Botswana
Sorting and Valuation
Government Policies
Debswana’s Corporate Strategies
Debswana’s ‘Strategy 2010’

12. BRAZIL: FORBIDDEN DIAMONDS

Historical Perspective
Portuguese Colonial Rule Until 1822
Portuguese Decrees
Portuguese Control
Brazil Gains Independence
Geographical Spread
Small Miners and Diggers
Ancestral Claims versus Contemporary Interest
Unregulated Small-Mining Partnerships
Unions and Labour Co-Operatives
Brazilian States
Diamantina
Coromandel
Juina
Mining Laws and Fiscal/Regulatory Regime
Institutional Arrangements
Enterprise Reform and Privatisation
Identification of Major Players
Opportunities in Small-Scale or Mechanical Mining Operations
Exploration
Mining
Rough Diamond Export System
Black and Gray Markets
Money Laundering and Other Compliance Issues
Uncertainties and Obstacles

13. CANADA:AWAITING THE SECOND AND THIRD WAVES

Canada’s Rough Diamond Position
Canada: The Different Producer
Tasks of Federal Government
Policies Towards Beneficiation
Veto Right to Miners?
History of Diamond Mining in Canada
Ekati (BHP Billiton) – ‘Fat Mine’
Diavik (Rio Tinto and Aber)
Mining + Retailing = Perfect Price Information
Snap Lake (De Beers)
Victor (De Beers)
Jericho (Tahera)
Rough Supply Policies to Manufacturers
Choking Mining Companies
Miner Markets Both Rough and Polished
Manufacturing Still in Infancy
Future Sources of Supply
Governmental and Corporate Policies
Implications for Diamantaires
Government Fears Money Laundering Threats
BHP Billiton Fears False Reporting
False or Unjustified Reporting and Ruined Reputations

14.CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC:A FAILED STATE – DRIVEN BY DIAMONDS

History of the Country and its Diamond Industry
Diamond Production
Bokassa Wanted Domestic Diamond-Cutting Industry
Structure of Contemporary Mining Sector
Economic Contribution of CAR’s Diamond Sector
Way Forward

15.DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO:A JUNCTION BETWEEN DESPAIR AND SPARKLE

The Nation’s Diamond Sector
Congo’s Historical Ties to Belgium and the Turbulent Years
Marketing System Experiment
From MIBA Tenders to IDI Monopoly
Gertler Dominancy
MIBA: From Plunder to Accountability
MIBA: Development Underwritten by DGI
Sengamines Saga
Sengamines Rescued by Mike Nunn
Corrupt Officials Force ‘Undervaluations’
Inability to Collect Diamond Taxes
Establishment of Clear Taxation Rules
Diamond Exploration Companies
Government Wants Beneficiation
Perspective on Reputational Issues

16. GUYANA:ANCIENT PROVINCE

Guyana’s Diamond History
Geography and its Effects on Diamond Production
Informal Mining Structure
Legal Arrangements for Mining
Licensing and Taxation
BOX: Taxation
Phantom Miners
Buyers, Traders, Exporters
BOX: Diamond-Exploration Companies
Challenges to the Diamond Industry

17. LESOTHO: MOUNTAIN MINING

Lesotho’s Diamond History
Decisions Made on Wrong Valuations
Valuators Also Act as Auctioneers`
Economic Climate and Fiscal Regime
Government’s Mineral Policy
Future Beyond Let.eng?

18. NAMIBIA: FUTURE IN THE WATER

Political Landscape
Current Generation
Diamond Production
Values and Valuations
Mining History and German Control
De Beers and Namibia – Enduring Stormy Weather
Current Mining Conditions
Taxation, Marketing and Processing
Value-Added Development
Local Decision Making
Developing a Diamond Strategy
Future in the Waters

19. RUSSIA: IN SEARCH OF A FUTURE WITHOUT DE BEERS

Multi-Pronged Rough Pricing Mechanism
Natural Resource Driven Economic Growth
Marketing Through the Cartel
Mining Sector’s Early Days
De Beers Warns Against Cartel Breakdown
Yeltsin’s Diamond Policies
Changing Cost Environment
Market Economy Transition
Development of Cutting Industry
Monopoly Position in the Local Market
Russia’s Secondary Market
Development of Alrosa
Alrosa’s Operations
Alrosa’s Rough and Polished Sales
Diamond Sorting and Valuation
Links with Angola
Going Without De Beers
Challenges to Stability

20. SIERRA LEONE: SCARRED BUT SURVIVING

Government Policy on Mining and Marketing
Historical and Political Background
War and Post-War
A Diamond Economy
Foreign Investments
Current Rate of Production
BOX: Mining Operations
Governance in Diamond Mining and Marketing
Regulatory Framework Affecting Buyers
Lebanese Fight to Protect Local Cartel
Access to Working Capital
Smuggling – A Necessity?
Transactions Operate Solely in Parallel Market
Flawed Export Procedure…
…and a Weak Domestic Banking System
Export Licensing Systems
Entry Barriers

21. SOUTH AFRICA: INDUSTRY UNDER A LEGISLATIVE AND POLITICAL CLOUD

Uncertainty Reigns
The End of Oppenheimer Rule?
Organisation of Rough Distribution
De Beers’ Position
Objectives of the New Act
Can South Africa be Competitive?
Export Duties and VAT
Focus on the Small Diggers
Expanded Role for Rough Dealers
Function of the Diamond Bourse
BOX: Diamond Discoveries
Historical Attempts to Create a Domestic Industry
Export Duty Imposed to Protect Domestic Industry
Subsidising Foreign Cutters
Failure of Pre-World War II Value-Added Policies
Incentives Eventually Ruined the Industry
Looking to the Future
Government Diamond Valuator’s Role
South Africa: Quo Vadis?
BOX: SADC Diamond Trading Area

22.TANZANIA: COME A LONG WAY

Diamond Destiny
Williamson versus De Beers
Domestic Beneficiation
Diamond Production Hopes
Integrated Economy
Addressing Humanitarian Concerns

23.VENEZUELA: COMING TO A HALT

Local Diamonds
Historical Background
Diamond Miners
Diamond Buyers and Exporters
Mining Control
Taxes Drive Business Underground

PART THREE: MANUFACTURERS AND TRADERS

24. MANUFACTURING AND TRADING CENTRES: AN INTRODUCTION

Profit Squeeze
Governmental Appetite for Beneficiation
Holding Stocks
Gross Margins
Cutting Centres
Fluctuating Fortunes
Proliferation of Manufacturing Activities
Uncertainty of Performance Data
Test for De Beers
Bourses as Instruments for Governmental Policy
from Mine to Mistress - Corporate Strategies and Government Policies in the International Diamond Industry - by Chaim Even-Zohar



25.ARMENIA:AT THE MERCY OF ROUGH SUPPLIERS

Economic Isolation Advances Diamond Industry
History of Diamond Processing
Diamond Manufacturing Scene
BOX: Active Synthetics Production
Investment Climate
Future Prospects

26. BELGIUM:THE ROYAL DIAMOND CENTRE

Government Needs Diamond Industry
Oldest Cutting Centre
Congo Links
Early Government Stewardship
British Role in Recovery
Fiscal Pact
Tax Incentives Aimed at Capital Formation
Tax Free
Laws Apply to all Sectors
Formal versus Informal
Belgium’s Informal Economy
AML/CFT Compliance Programmes
Diamond High Council
Value Added Tax Exemption
Belgian Cost Factors
Antwerp’s Bourses
EC Licensing Laws
Legal Framework for Trade
Imports and Exports
Sparkling Future for Antwerp

27. CHINA:THE SPARKLING DRAGON

Diamond Manufacturing Sector
Descendents of the Dragon as Diamond Consumers
De Beers Promotions Target the Urban Middle Class
Shanghai Diamond Exchange: Trade Monopoly
How Did the SDE Earn Such Enormous Economic Benefits?
Mechanism to Control Shanghai Diamond Exchange
Chronic Lack of Financing Availability
Insignificant Domestic Diamond-Mining Output
Early Beginnings to the Present

28. DUBAI:THE INDUSTRY’S NEW GARDEN OF EDEN

Buoyant Domestic Cash-Based Consumer Market
Developing a Sustainable Diamond Policy
De Beers – Transfer Pricing and Clients’ Laundering Needs
Burden of Proof
BOX: Transfer Pricing – International Issues
Changing Behaviour
Diamond Trade from a Dubai Perspective
Dubai’s Diamond Future

29. INDIA: CRADLE OF THE DIAMOND INDUSTRY

Rise of Contemporary Industry
Creative Accounting Concern
Cut in India
Eligibility for Export Credits
Rediscovering Ancient Deposits
Diamond Industry: Genuine Enigma
Informal Economy Operations
Local Levies Skillfully Evaded
Couriers and Bankers: Systems of Trust
Domestic Jewellery Market
Export Markets
Near-Gem Monopoly
Role of Argyle Mine
Rough Relations
Import Licenses and Taxation
BOX: Diversification and Restructuring
India’s Regional Breakdown
Worker Productivity
Official versus Informal Finance
Improved Trading Environment
Diamond Dabbawalas: Paper Companies

30. ISRAEL: DEFENDING THE QUALITY DIAMONDS NICHE

Pre-State History
1950s – Period of Decline
Return of De Beers
Ongoing Government Role
Added-Value Contribution
Provision of Capital
Fiscal Arrangements
Rough Imports and Exports
Polished Diamond Exports and Manufacturing
BOX: The Leviev Phenomenon
Trends Toward Consolidation and Concentration
Future Directions of the Israeli Industry
BOX: The Schnitzer Heritage

31.THE NETHERLANDS: AMSTERDAM – CITY OF DIAMONDS

Earliest Cutting and Polishing Industries
Brazil’s Influence on Amsterdam Diamond Industry
On the Upswing – The Cape Period
Industry Exodus to the US
Amsterdam Diamond Bourse
Early and Mid-1900s: Roller Coaster of Inconsistency
World War II – Diamonds for Hitler
Nazis Establish Diamond Factories
War’s Aftermath
Dutch Domestic Diamond Market
BOX: Oppenheimer Rescued Jewish Relatives in Holocaust

32. US:THE BIG APPLE DIAMOND GATEWAY

Value of the Middlemen
History of US Diamond Industry
World War II
US Diamonds as Foreign Assistance
Protective Tarifs
Current Cutting and Trading Industry
Added Value and Margins on Wholesale Levels
Added Value and Margins in the Jewellery Retail Sector
Understanding the Supply and Demand Equation
Changing Distribution Patterns
Re-Export Market
Lack of Availability of Rough Diamonds for Processing
9/11 Changed the Industry’s Landscape
Rules Discriminate Against Foreign Suppliers

PART FOUR: GLOBAL ISSUES

33. POLITICAL AND LEGAL CONSTRAINTS: UN-CARTELLING THE DIAMOND CARTEL

Proud to be Illegal
In Search of Legal Compliance
Settling First in the US
Private Actions Against De Beers
Friendly Environment for Class Actions: Katie versus Nicky
US$300 Million to Satisfy all Suits
Status of Sullivan: Disbursement of Funds
Landmark Case: Leider versus Ralfe
Prove that Diamonds are Foreover
Position of the Sightholders
The Court of Public Opinion
History of De Beers’ ‘Trouble’ in the US
First Criminal Indictment Against De Beers
Political versus Commercial Concerns
Next Indictment: 1974
FTC Investigates De Beers’ Clients
Can the Diamond Industry Survive Without a Cartel Structure?
De Beers in Europe
Gary Ralfe ‘Saved’ the Company
Co-Operating With the Authorities
Restriction of Competition (Article 1)
Abuse of Dominant Position (Article 82)
SoC’s First Test in Antwerp Court
SoC Procedures Tested in British Court
The Essence of the Jayam Claim
Ombudsman to Filter Information into Allocation Model
BOX: Omni-Powerful – Albeit Conflicted
EC’s Outsourcing of its Monitoring and Investigation Responsibilities
Legal Compliance: From Elusive Dream to Reality Within Reach

34. BRANDING REVOLUTION: PRODUCER-INDUCED STRATEGIES

De Beers Opposes Generic Diamond Marketing
Branding in Diamonds
Vertical Integration: Preferred Branding Option
Rough Diamond Supply to Jewellery Brand Owners?
Franchising the De Beers Brand
Five Different Types of Diamond Branding
Losers and Winners
Attaching a Label to the Diamond
Benefits of Product Differentiation
Looking to the Future

35. DIAMOND BANKING: HIGHER RISKS IN A POST-CARTEL ENVIRONMENT

Annual Interest Costs Close to US$1 Billion
Cartel’s Stability as Worldwide Justification for Leverage
Globalisation of the Niche Expertise
Margins Attract New Banking Players
Increased Loss Provisions
Financing Product Development and Risk Hedging
Risks of Financial Meltdown
Basel II and Diamond Financing
Worldwide Diamond Industry’s Banking Debt
Insuring the Default Risks
Indian Banking Scene
Israel Banking Scene
Monitoring the Added Value
Collapse of Subsidised Finance
Analysis of Israel’s Contemporary Banking Scene
Active Israeli Banks
Internal Clearing System
US Scene
Belgian Scene
Internationalisation of Diamond Banking
Distress Hedge Funds Drawn to Industry Debts
Industry Liquidity

APPENDICES

A. ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING RULES: US vs BELGIUM
B. DEFINING CONFLICT DIAMONDS
C. DTC – DIAMOND BEST PRACTICE PRINCIPLES
D. CRJP CODE OF PRACTICE
E. DE BEERS OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE
F. EC SOC DECISION
G. EC ALROSA-DE BEERS DECISION
H. EC DE BEERS-LVMH DECISION

GLOSSARY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
INDEX

TABLES

Diamond Pipeline (2005)
Diamond Jewellery Markets (By Country)
Estimated Annual World Supply of Polished Stones
US Polished Imports of Diamonds
Polished Trade Flow From/To Four Main Centres
Rough Diamond Trade Through the Dubai Free-Trade Zone
Rough Diamond Trade Through the Swiss Free-Trade Zone
Hypothetical Diamond Retailer’s Sales and Inventory Movements
World Production (2005) According to Kimberley Process
World Natural Diamond Production (2005)
World Natural Diamond Production: By Country and Type
Production Qualities: By Mine
World Production By Size and Value
ANGOLA:
Official Diamond Output (2001-2005)
Formal Sector Production By Mine
Diamond Sector’s Contribution to Government Budget
Historical Diamond Statistics
Diamond Production (1995-2001)
Diamond Export Values (1995-2001)
AUSTRALIA:
Map of Australian Mining Operations
Argyle Parameters
Australian Diamond Royalty Receipts
BOTSWANA:
Diamond Exports
Diamond Production (2002)
Diamond Production (2003)
Contributions to Changes in Mineral Revenue
Debswana’s Key Performance Indicators
BRAZIL: Diamond Production (1997-2003)
CANADA: Rough Diamond Production (1998-2005)
CAR:
Rough Diamond Exports
Export Tax Components (%)
CONGO (DR):
Official Diamond Production
Historical Diamond Output (1980-2002)
Recent Diamond Output (2003-2005)
Miba Production
Government Revenue from Mining
Diamond Tax and Royalty Revenue (2004)
Revenue from Mining Taxation, Royalties and Trading Licences
Revenue from Exploration and Mechanised Mining (2004)
Mining Taxation
NAMIBIA:
Rough Diamond Exports (1999-2005)
Namdeb Production Statistics (2004, 2005)
Namdeb Diamond Sales (2001-2005)
RUSSIA:
Price Differentials in Multi-Tier Pricing
Value of Diamonds Extracted (2001-2005)
Alrosa’s Rough Diamond Sales (2000-2005)
Alrosa’s Polished Diamond sales (2000-2005)
Alrosa’s Audited Financial Highlights (2004, 2005)
SIERRA LEONE:
Cost and Revenue Split Between Stakeholders
Diamond Production Distribution
Artisanal Costs
License Fees for Dealers and Exporters
SOUTH AFRICA:
De Beers-DTC Balance: Better Goods (2004)
De Beers-DTC Balance: Cheaper Goods (2004)
DTC Sightholders in South Africa (March 2007)
Alluvial Production Valuation
BELGIUM:
Effect of a 10% Cost Rise on the Cost of the Finished Product
Polished Diamond Imports and Exports (2004, 2005)
Imports of Polished Diamonds (2004, 2005)
Exports of Polished Diamonds (2004, 2005)
DUBAI:
Rough Diamond Trade Through Free-Trade Zone (2003-2005)
Rough Diamond Imports by Origin (2005)
Rough Diamond Re-Exports by Destination (2005)
Polished Trade (2002-2005)
INDIA:
Rough Imports and Polished Exports, and Value Contribution (1990-2005)
Major Suppliers of Rough Diamonds (1997-2005)
Share of DTC Sales (1990-2004)
Replenishment License Entitlement
Regional Production and Cost Breakdown
ISRAEL:
Diamond Industry Contribution to Balance of Payments (2000-2006)
Diamond Industry Banking Debt (end 2006)
Banking Debt Statistics (1980-2006)
Rough Diamond Imports and Exports (2005)
Rough Diamond Trade (Imports and Exports by Country; 2005)
Polished Gross Exports (1996-2005)
US Polished Imports and Israel’s Share (2005)
Export Industry Concentration
Share of Banking Credit (1995-2005)
US:
Diamond and Jewellery Wholesale Traders and Jewellery Stores (2003)
Worldwide Diamond Pipeline and Margins (2004)
New York State Employment in Diamond and Jewellery Sector
Diamonds and Jewellery Margins
Performance of US Jewellers (2005)
Polished Imports of Diamonds (2002-2006)
Polished Diamond Imports (2002-2006)
Large Polished Diamond Imports (2002-2006)
Small Polished Diamond Imports (2002-2006)
Polished Diamond Exports (2001-2006)
Rough Diamond Import Values (2002-2006)
Re-Exports of Rough Gem-Quality Diamonds (2001-2006)
BANKING:
Leading Diamond-Industry Financing Institutions
International Diamond Industry Banking Indebtedness (1997-2006)
Israel Diamond Industry Banking Indebtedness (2004-2006)
Israel Diamond Industry’s Debt-Export Ratio (1999-2005)
Antwerp Diamond Financing

FIGURES & DIAGRAMS

Diamond Jewellery Markets (by Region)
2005 World Production by Value
Complex Distribution System
Estimated Polished Supply
Value Addition in Diamond Pipeline
SUPPLIER OF CHOICE:
Client Assessment
Sightholder Eligibility
Scorecard System
Assessment Schematic
Financial Standing and Reliability
Market Position
Development Plan
Distribution
Marketing: B2B
Marketing: B2C
Technical and Manufacturing
BHP Billiton Diamond Strategy
Typical Money-Laundering Scheme
Value of Mined Rough Production
World Supply
Primary v Secondary/Alluvial Deposits
World Production (Size and Value Breakdown)
GIA Intake Percentages (2002-2007)
Real Rough Diamond Prices (Indexed)
Forecast Diamond Supply-Demand (2005-2015)
ANGOLA: Location Map
BOTSWANA:
Real GDP Growth and Per Capita GDP
Diamond Production (1970-2005)
BRAZIL: Geological Map
CANADA:
Mines in the Northwest Territories
Diamond Exploration Expenditure (2004)
CAR: Location Map
GUYANA:
Location Map
Administrative Regions
NAMIBIA:
Land v Sea Production (1908-2003)
Namdeb Production (1999-2010)
Stone Size Distribution
RUSSIA:
Alrosa Operating Structure
Diamond Mining Production
SIERRA LEONE:
Location Map
Conflict Areas
Main Stakeholders in Artisanal Mining
TANZANIA: Location Map
VENEZUELA: Location Map
MANUFACTURING:
Clarity v Cost (1 ct stone)
Consumer Preferences (Colour v Clarity)
Armenia: Location Map
China: Structure of the Diamond Administration
INDIA:
Destination of Exports (2005-06)
Size of Retail Market (1995-2004)
Exports of Gems and Jewellery (2000-2005)
US:
Retail Sales Growth (1991-2005)
Jewellery Store Sales Distribution